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Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider Document 528-v1

rf Breakdown with and without Magnetic Fields

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Document type:
Journal Publication
Submitted by:
Juan C Gallardo
Updated by:
Juan C Gallardo
Document Created:
09 Sep 2008, 09:29
Contents Revised:
09 Sep 2008, 09:29
Metadata Revised:
09 Sep 2008, 11:08
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09 Sep 2008, 12:09
Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders' cooling lattices require both high gradient rf and strong focusing solenoids. Experiments have shown that there may be serious problems operating rf in the required magnetic fields. The use of high pressure gas to avoid these problems is discussed, including possible loss problems from electron and ion production by the passage of an ionizing beam. It is also noted that high pressure gas cannot be used in later stages of cooling for a muon collider. Experimental observations using vacuum rf cavities in magnetic fields are discussed, current published models of breakdown with and without magnetic fields are summarized, and some of their predictions compared with observations.

A new theory of magnetic field dependent breakdown is presented. It is proposed that electrons emitted by field emission on asperities on one side of a cavity are focused by the magnetic field to the other side where they melt the cavity surface in small spots. Metal is then electrostatically drawn from the molten spots, becomes vaporized and ionized by field emission from the remaining damage and cause breakdown. The theory is fitted to existing 805~MHz data and predictions are made for performance at 201~MHz. The model predicts breakdown gradients significantly below those specified for either the International Scoping Study (ISS)~\cite{iss} Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider~\cite{collider}.

Possible solutions to these problems are discussed, including designs for `magnetically insulated rf' in which the cavity walls are designed to be parallel to a chosen magnetic field contour line and consequently damage from field emission is suppressed.
An experimental program to study these problems and their possible solution is outlined.

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